Constitutional Congregressional Apportionment Problem


  How many seats in the U. S. House of Representatives does each state get?


An answer is presented as an historical narrative with relevant and timely applications a recent book, The History of Congressional Apportionment.

Chapter 1.  Congressional Apportionment Based on the Census: 1790.

Chapter 2.  Congressional Apportionment Based on the Census: 1800-1840.

Chapter 3.  Congressional Apportionment Based on the Census: 1850-1890.

Chapter 4.  Congressional Apportionment Based on the Census: 1900-1930.

Chapter 5.  Congressional Apportionment Based on the Census: 1940-2010.

Chapter 6.  An Historical Overture.


The History of Congressional Apportionment

Fourth Printing (4 August 2019)

Third Printing (27 July 2019)

Second Printing  (13 November 2017)

Errata and Updates for First Printing

HSU Press

Last update: 13 November 2017.

Cover insprired by a graphic courtesy of

The West Virginia Record

My apologies for any inconvenience, but the master file for the 3rd printing somehow got corrupted and the 3rd printing had several unexplainable errors.

The master file has been restored and all known errata are corrected in the 4th printing, now available.

If you have a previous printing, I recommend that you replace it with the latest (4th) printing of the book.

Coming Soon in early 2021.

Second Edition

  • Improvements to the first edition.

  • Reapportionment Based on the 2020 Census. 

… no political problem is less susceptible of a precise solution than that which relates to the number most convenient for a representative legislature, …

James Madison

The Federalist 55